Michael Kremer University Professor Kenneth C. Griffin Department of Economics

Publications and Working Papers

Deworming

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Economics of Mass Deworming Programs,” with Amrita Ahuja, Sarah Baird, Joan Hamory Hicks, and Edward Miguel in “Bundy, Donald A. P.; de Silva, Nilanthi; Horton, Susan; Jamison, Dean T.; Patton, George C. (eds.) Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition: Volume 8. Child and Adolescent Health and Development, Chapter 29: 413-422. Washington, DC: World Bank (2017). 
  2. Should the WHO Withdraw Support for Mass Deworming?” with Kevin Croke, Joan Hamory Hicks, Eric Hsu, and Edward Miguel, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11:6 e0005481 (June 8, 2017). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005481. 
  3. More Evidence on the Effects of Deworming: What Lessons Can We Learn?” with Kevin Croke and Eric Hsu, The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 96:6 (2017): 1265-1266. 
  4. Worms at Work: Long-Run Impacts of a Child Health Investment,” with Sarah Baird, Joan Hamory Hicks, and Edward Miguel, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131:4 (November 2016): 1637-1680. DOI: 10.1093/qje/qjw022. (NBER Working Paper 21428, 2018). 
  5. Commentary: Assessing Long-Run Deworming Impacts on Education and Economic Outcomes: A Comment on Jullien, Sinclair and Garner,” with Sarah Baird, Joan Hamory Hicks, and Edward Miguel, International Journal of Epidemiology, 45:6 (2016): 2153-2156. 
  6. The Case for Mass Treatment of Intestinal Helminths in Endemic Areas,” with Joan Hamory Hicks and Edward Miguel, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9:10 (October 22, 2015): e0004214. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004214. 
  7. When Should Governments Subsidize Health? The Case of Mass Deworming,” with Amrita Ahuja, Sarah Baird, Joan Hamory Hicks, Edward Miguel, and Shawn Powers, World Bank Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 29 (Supplement 2015): S9-S24. (NBER Working Paper 21148, 2015). 
  8. Commentary: Deworming Externalities and Schooling Impacts in Kenya: A Comment on Aiken et al. (2015) and Davey et al. (2015),” with Joan Hamory Hicks and Edward Miguel, International Journal of Epidemiology, 44:5 (October 2015): 1593-1596. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyv129. Published online July 22, 2015. 
  9. Deworming and Development: Asking the Right Questions, Asking the Questions Right,” with Donald Bundy, Hoyt Bleakley, Matthew Jukes, and Edward Miguel, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3:1 (January 2009): e362. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000362. 
  10. Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities,” with Edward Miguel, Econometrica, 72:1 (January 2004):159-217. (NBER Working Paper 8481, 2001).

Working Papers

  1. Twenty Years Economic Impacts of Deworming” with Joan Hamory, Edward Miguel, Michael W. Walker, and Sarah J. Baird, PNAS April 6, 2021 118 (14) e2023185118.
  2. Twenty Year Economic Impacts of Deworming,” with Joan Hamory, Edward Miguel, Michael W. Walker, and Sarah J. Baird. NBER Working Paper 27611, 2020.
  3. Twenty Year Economic Impacts of Deworming,” with Joan Hamory Hicks, Edward Miguel, Michael Walker, and Sarah Baird. Working Paper, July 2020. 
  4. Does Mass Deworming Affect Child Nutrition? Meta-analysis, Cost-Effectiveness, and Statistical Power,” with Kevin Croke, Joan Hamory Hicks, Eric Hsu, and Edward Miguel, CEPR Discussion Paper 11458; NBER Working Paper 22382, 2018. 

Agriculture / Digital Agriculture

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Realizing the Potential of Digital Development: The Case of Agricultural Advice,” with Raissa Fabregas and Frank Schilbach, Science, 366:6471 (December 13, 2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3038. 
  2. Contract Farming and Agricultural Productivity in Western Kenya,” with Lorenzo Casaburi and Sendhil Mullainathan in Sebastian Edwards, Simon Johnson, and David N. Weil (eds.) African Successes, Volume IV: Sustainable Growth, Chapter 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. 
  3. Nudging Farmers to Use Fertilizer: Theory and Experimental Evidence from Kenya,” with Esther Duflo and Jonathan Robinson, American Economic Review, 101:6 (October 2011): 2350-2390. 
  4. How High Are Rates of Return to Fertilizer? Evidence from Field Experiments in Kenya,” with Esther Duflo and Jonathan Robinson, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 98:2 (May 2008): 482-488. 

Working Papers

  1. Using Data for Development: Evidence from a Phone System for Agricultural Advice,” with Torsten Figueiredo Walter, Ofir Reich, Zhengyun Sun, Sam van Herwaarden, and Habtamu Yesigat. Working Paper, October 2020. 
  2. Crony Capitalism, Collective Action, and ICT: Evidence from Kenyan Contract Farming,” with Lorenzo Casaburi and Ravindra Ramrattan. Working Paper, October 2019. 
  3. Harnessing ICT to Increase Agricultural Production: Evidence From Kenya,” with Lorenzo Casaburi, Sendhil Mullainathan, Ravindra Ramrattan. Working Paper, September 2019 

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. Digital Information Channels in the Rwandan Potato Value Chain,” with Daniel Bjorkegren and Ram Fishman. International Growth Centre Policy Brief, September 2019.

Health

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Improving Health in Developing Countries: Evidence from Randomized Evaluations,” with Rachel Glennerster in Mark V. Pauly, Thomas G. McGuire, and Pedro Pita Barros (eds.) Handbook of Health Economics, Volume 2. North Holland: Elsevier, 2012.
  2. Early-Life Malaria Exposure and Adult Outcomes: Evidence from Malaria Eradication in India,” with David Cutler, Winnie Fung, Monica Singhal, and Tom Vogl, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2:2 (April 2010): 72-94. (“Mosquitoes: The Long-term Effects of Malaria Eradication in India,” NBER Working Paper 13539, 2007).
  3. Global Public Goods in Communicable Disease Control,” Infectious Disease, Expert Paper One, Stockholm: International Task Force on Global Public Goods, 2006.
  4. Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries” with Nazmul Chaudhury, Jeffrey Hammer, Karthik Muralidharan, and F. Halsey Rogers, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20:1 (Winter 2006): 91-116.
  5. On How To Improve World Health,” Daedalus, Summer 2004: 120-123.
  6. Regional Public Goods and Health in Latin America,” with Jessica Leino, in Antoni Estevadeordal, Brian Frantz, Tam Robert Nguyen (eds.) Regional Public Goods: From Theory to Practice. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank and Asian Development Bank, 2004.
  7. Cambios en los hábitos y los sistemas sanitarios: algunas evidencias a partir de evaluaciones aleatorizadas” in José García Montalvo (ed.) El análisis experimental de la ayuda al desarrollo. Bilbao: Fundación BBVA, 2008.
  8. Epidemiology of single and multiple species of helminth infections among school children in Busia District, Kenya,” with  S Brooker, E A Miguel, S Moulin, A I Luoba, and D A Bundy. East African medical journal, 77(3), 157–161, 2000.

Working Papers

  1. Could Vaccine Dose Stretching Reduce COVID-19 Deaths?” with Witold Więcek, Amrita Ahuja, Alexandre Simoes Gomes, Christopher M. Snyder, Alex Tabarrok, Brandon Joel Tan. Working Paper, June 2021.
  2. Optimal Subsidies for Prevention of Infectious Disease,” with Matthew Goodkin-Gold, Christopher M. Snyder, and Heidi Williams. Working Paper, April 2020.
  3. Is There a Doctor in the House? Medical Worker Absence in India,” with Karthik Muralidharan, Nazmul Chaudhury, Jeffrey Hammer, and F. Halsey Rogers. Working Paper, Harvard University. April 2011.
  4. Contracting for Health: Evidence from Cambodia,” with Erik Bloom, Elizabeth King, Indu Bhushan, David Clingingsmith, Benjamin Loevinsohn, Rathavuth Hong, J. Brad Schwartz. Brookings Institution, 2006.

Books

  1. Strong Medicine: Creating Incentives for Pharmaceutical Research on Neglected Diseases, with Rachel Glennerster, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2004.

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. Nobelpreisträger Michael Kremer: «Damit ein Kind in den USA in die Schule darf, muss es diverse Impfungen haben – darüber macht man kein Aufheben” with Christoph Eisenring and Thomas Fuster, 2021.
  2. Delivering Health Care,” with David Clingingsmith, Boston Review 31:2 (March/April 2007): 15.
  3. “Regional Public Goods and Health in Latin America,” with Jessica Leino, 2003.
  4. A Better Way to Spur Medical Research and Development,” with Rachel Glennerster, Regulation 23:2 (2000): 34-39.

HIV/AIDS 

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Preventives versus Treatments Redux: Tighter Bounds on Distortions in Innovation Incentives with an Application to the Global Demand for HIV Pharmaceuticals,” with Christopher M. Snyder, Review of Industrial Organization, 53:1 (August 2018): 235-273. DOI: 10.1007/s11151-018-9621-9624. 
  2. Education, HIV, and Early Fertility: Experimental Evidence from Kenya,” with Esther Duflo and Pascaline Dupas, American Economic Review, 105:9 (September 2015): 2757-2797. (CEPR Discussion Paper 10338, 2014; NBER Working Paper 20784, 2014). 
  3. Preventives versus Treatments,” with Christopher M. Snyder, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130:3 (August 2015): 1167-1239. (CEPR Discussion Paper 12751, 2015; NBER Working Paper 21012, 2015). 
  4. AIDS: The Economic Rationale for Public Intervention,” in Martha Ainsworth, Lieve Fransen, and Mead Over (eds.) Confronting AIDS: Evidence from the Developing World, The European Commission and the World Bank, 1998.
  5. On the Effect of Changing Sexual Activity on HIV Prevalence,” with Charles Morcom, Mathematical Biosciences, 151:1 (July 1998): 99-122.
  6. AIDS, Behavioral Choice, and the Composition of the Pool of Available Partners,” Advances in Mathematical Population Dynamics: Molecules, Cells and Man, Part II, Chapter 8, World Scientific Publishing Co., 1997, 487-510.
  7. Integrating Behavioral Choice into Epidemiological Models of the AIDS Epidemic,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111:2 (May 1996): 549-573. (NBER Working Paper 5428, 1996).

Working Papers

  1. Education and HIV/AIDS Prevention: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Western Kenya” with Esther Duflo, Pascaline Dupas; and Samuel Sinei. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper Series: 4024, 2006.
  2. Can Having Fewer Partners Increase the Prevalence of AIDS?” NBER Working Paper 4942, 1994.

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. Using Global Demand Calibrations to Evaluate Policy: Case Study of HIV Pharmaceuticals,” with Christopher M. Snyder and Fanele Mashwama. VoxEU CEPR, May 10, 2019.
  2. HIV/AIDS prevention: the potential of primary education,” Centre Piece, the Centre for Economic Performance, the London School of Economics (Autumn 2006): 22-24.

Education 

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Education as Liberation?” with Willa Friedman, Edward Miguel, and Rebecca Thornton, Economica, 83:329 (2016): 1-30. DOI: 10.111/ecca.12168. Published online November 11, 2015. (NBER Working Paper 16939, 2011). 
  2. School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil-Teacher Ratios: Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools,” with Esther Duflo and Pascaline Dupas, Journal of Public Economics, 123 (March 2015): 92-110. (NBER Working Paper 17939, 2012). 
  3. The Challenge of Education and Learning in the Developing World,” with Conner Brannen and Rachel Glennerster, Science, 340:6130 (April 19, 2013): 297-300. 
  4. Peer Effects and the Impacts of Tracking: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation in Kenya,”with Esther Duflo and Pascaline Dupas, American Economic Review, 101:5 (August 2011): 1739-1774. (CEPR Working Paper 7043, 2008; NBER Working Paper 14475, 2008). 
  5. Are Educational Vouchers Only Redistributive?” with Eric Bettinger and Juan E. Saavedra, The Economic Journal, 120 (August 2010): F204–F228. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-0297.2010.02374.x 
  6. Teacher Incentives,” with Paul Glewwe and Nauman Ilias, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2:3 (July 2010): 205-227. (NBER Working Paper 9671, 2003).
  7. Incentivizing Education: Adding to the Toolkit,” with Heidi Williams, in Josh Lerner and Scott Stern (eds.) Innovation Policy and the Economy, 10 (2010): 1-17. 
  8. Pricing and Access: Lessons from Randomized Evaluations in Education and Health,” with Alaka Holla in Jessica Cohen and William Easterly (eds.) What Works in Development? Thinking Big and Thinking Small. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2009. 
  9. Improving Education in the Developing World: What Have We Learned from Randomized Evaluations?” with Alaka Holla in Kenneth J. Arrow and Timothy F. Bresnahan (eds.) Annual Review of Economics, Volume 1, (September 2009): 513-542. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.economics.050708.143323. 
  10. Public-Private Schools in Rural India,” with Karthik Muralidharan in Rajashri Chakrabarti and Paul E. Peterson (eds.) School-Choice International: Exploring Public-Private Partnerships. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 2009.
  11. Teacher Incentives in the Developing World,” with Paul Glewwe and Alaka Holla in Springer, Matthew (ed.) Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2009. 
  12. Incentives to Learn,” with Edward Miguel and Rebecca Thornton, Review of Economics and Statistics (lead article), 91:3 (August 2009): 437-456. (NBER Working Paper 10971, 2004). 
  13. Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya,” with Paul Glewwe and Sylvie Moulin, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1:1 (January 2009): 112-135. (NBER Working Paper 13300, 2007). 
  14. The Political Economy of Education in Kenya,” in Mark Gradstein and Kai A. Konrad (eds.) Institutions and Norms in Economic Development. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2006. 
  15. Schools, Teachers, and Education Outcomes in Developing Countries,” with Paul Glewwe in Eric Alan Hanushek and Finis Welch (eds.) The Handbook on the Economics of Education, Volume 2. Amsterdam and London: North-Holland, 2006. 
  16. Long-Term Educational Consequences of Secondary School Vouchers: Evidence from Administrative Records in Colombia,” with Joshua Angrist and Eric Bettinger, American Economic Review, 96:3 (June 2006): 847-62. (NBER Working Paper 10713, 2004). 
  17. Why Are Teachers Absent? Probing Service Delivery in Peruvian Primary Schools,” with Lorena Alcazar, F. Halsey Rogers; Nazmul Chaudhury, Jeffrey Hammer, Karthik Muralidharan, International Journal of Educational Research, 45:3 (2006): 117-136. 
  18. Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries” with Nazmul Chaudhury, Jeffrey Hammer, Karthik Muralidharan, and F. Halsey Rogers, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20:1 (Winter 2006): 91-116.
  19. “Motivation Matters: Merit Scholarships and Student Achievements,” Innovation in Education: Proceedings of a Conference held in Cleveland, Ohio, November 17-18, 2005.
  20. Teacher Absence in India: A Snapshot,” with Nazmul Chaudhury, Jeffrey Hammer, Karthik Muralidharan, and F. Halsey Rogers, Journal of the European Economic Association, 3:2-3 (April-May 2005): 658-667. 
  21. Incentives to Learn,” with Edward Miguel and Rebecca Thornton, Education Next: a Journal of Opinion and Research, 5:2 (Spring 2005): 57-64. 
  22. Retrospective vs. Prospective Analyses of School Inputs: The Case of Flip Charts in Kenya,” with Paul Glewwe, Sylvie Moulin and Eric Zitzewitz, Journal of Development Economics, 74:1 (June 2004): 251-268. (NBER Working Paper 8018, 2000).
  23. Randomized Evaluations of Educational Programs in Developing Countries: Some Lessons,” American Economic Review, 93:2 (May 2003): 102-106.
  24. Vouchers for Private Schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Natural Experiment,” with Joshua Angrist, Eric Bettinger, Erik Bloom, and Elizabeth King, American Economic Review, 92:5 (December 2002): 1535-1558. (NBER Working Paper 8343, 2001).
  25. Improving School Quality in Developing Countries,” in Anne O. Krueger (ed.) Economic Policy Reform: The Second Stage,. University of Chicago Press, 2000.
  26. “Research on Schooling: What We Know and What We Don’t: A Comment on Hanushek,” The World Bank Research Observer, 10 (August 1995): 247-254.

Working Papers

  1. The Impact of Free Secondary Education: Experimental Evidence from Ghana,” with Esther Duflo and Pascaline Dupas. NBER Working Paper 28937, 2021.
  2. School Meals, Educational Achievement, and School Competition: Evidence from a Randomized Evaluation,” with Christel Vermeersch. Washington D.C.: The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper Series: 3523, 2005.
  3. “Promoting School Participation in Rural Rajasthan: Results from Some Prospective Trials,” with Abhijit Banerjee and Suraj Jacob, with Jenny Lanjouw and Peter Lanjouw, 2002.
  4. “Why Do Governments Operate Schools?” with Andrei Sarychev, 1998.
  5. “The Quantity-Quality Tradeoff in Education: Evidence from a Prospective Evaluation in Kenya,” with Sylvie Moulin, David Myatt, and Robert Namunyu, 1997.

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. Can Tracking Improve Learning? Evidence from Kenya,” with Esther Duflo and Pascaline Dupas. Education Next, (Summer 2009): 64-70.
  2. “Education in the Developing World,” American Academy of Arts and Sciences Bulletin 60:4 (Summer 2007): 16-19.
  3. Expanding Educational Opportunity on a Budget: Lessons from Randomized Evaluations” in Joel E. Cohen, David E. Bloom, and Martin B. Malin (eds.) .Educating All Children: A Global Agenda. Cambridge, Mass: American Academy of Arts and Sciences: MIT Press, 2006. Reprinted in Improving Education Through Assessment, Innovation, and Evaluation. American Academy of Arts and Sciences: Project on Universal Basic and Secondary Education. Cambridge (MIT Press), 2006.

Economic Growth

Working Papers

  1. Economic Transformation, Population Growth and the Long-Run World Income Distribution,” with Marcos Chamon, Journal of International Economics, 79:1 (September 2009): 20-30. (IMF Working Papers: 06/21; NBER Working Paper 12038, 2006). 
  2. Why Isn’t Convergence Instantaneous? Young Workers, Old Workers, and Gradual Adjustment,” with James Thomson, Journal of Economic Growth, 3:1 (March 1998): 5-28. (NBER Working Paper 4827, 1994).
  3. Saving and Growth: A Comment,” Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, 40 (June 1994): 193-197.
  4. Good Policy or Good Luck? Country Growth Performance and Temporary Shocks,” with William Easterly, Lant Pritchett, and Lawrence Summers, Journal of Monetary Economics, 32:3 (1993): 459-483. (NBER Working Paper 4474, 1993).
  5. Population Growth and Technological Change: 1,000,000 B.C. to 1990,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108:3 (August 1993): 681-716. Reprinted in Gene Grossman (ed.) Economic Growth: Theory and Evidence, Elgar Reference Collection, International Library of Critical Writings in Economics (68), 1996; and in Julian Simon (ed.) The Economics of Population: Key Modern Readings, Cheltenham. UK ; Lynne, NH: Edward Elgar Publishers, 1997. 
  6. The O-Ring Theory of Economic Development,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108:3 (August 1993): 551-576. Translated into Portuguese as “A teoria ‘anel em O’ de desencolvimento econômico,” Revista Brasileira de Economia, April/June 1995.

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. “The Match Game,” Forbes Magazine, September 15, 2003.

Water and Health

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Targeting Health Subsidies Through a Non-Price Mechanism: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Kenya,” with Pascaline Dupas, Vivian Hoffmann, and Alix Peterson Zwane, Science, 353:6302 (August 26, 2016): 889-895. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6288.
  2. Spring Cleaning: Rural Water Impacts, Valuation and Property Rights Institutions,” with Jessica Leino, Edward Miguel, and Alix Peterson Zwane, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126:1 (February 2011): 145-205. (NBER Working Paper 15280, 2009). 
  3. Providing Safe Water: Evidence from Randomized Evaluations,” with Amrita Ahuja and Alix Peterson Zwane, Annual Review of Resource Economics, Volume 2, (October 2010): 237-256. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.resource.012809.103919. 
  4. What Works in Fighting Diarrheal Diseases in Developing Countries? A Critical Review,” with Alix Peterson Zwane, World Bank Research Observer, 22:1, (Spring 2007): 1-24. (NBER Working Paper 13539, 2007).  
  5. Cost-Effective Prevention of Diarrheal Diseases: A Critical Review,” with Alix Peterson Zwane, Center for Global Development Working Paper 117 (2007).

Working Papers

  1. Water Treatment and Child Mortality: Evidence from Kenya.” with Johannes Haushofer, Ricardo Maertens and Brandon Joel Tan. October 15, 2021.
  2. “Long-term take-up of point-of-collection chlorination for water treatment: Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial in rural Kenya,” with Clair Null, Alix P. Zwane, Amrita Ahuja, Jeff Berens, Edward Miguel, and Jessica Vernon.

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. Water Technologies: What Works Best in Poor Countries?” with Edward Miguel, Clair Null and Alix Zwane. Boston Review 33:5 (September/October 2008): 9.
  2. Deciphering the Demand for Safe Drinking Water,” with Edward Miguel, Clair Null, and Alix Zwane. Resources for the Future, Weekly Policy Commentary September 1, 2008. 

Vaccines

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Advance Market Commitments: Insights from Theory and Experience,” with Jonathan Levin and Christopher M. Snyder, American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings, 110 (May 2020): 269-273. 
  2. Making Vaccines Pay,” in William Easterly (ed.) Reinventing Foreign Aid. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2008. 
  3. Advance Market Commitments for Vaccines against Neglected Diseases: Estimating Costs and Effectiveness,” with Ernst Berndt, Rachel Glennerster, Jean Lee, Ruth Levine, Georg Weizsäcker, and Heidi Williams, Health Economics, 16:5 (May 2007): 491-511. (Center for Global Development Working Paper 98). 
  4. Creating Markets for Vaccines,” with Rachel Glennerster and Heidi Williams, Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 1:1 (Winter 2006): 67-79.
  5. Public Policies to Stimulate Development of Vaccines for Neglected Diseases,” in Abhijit Banerjee, Roland Benabou, and Dilip Mookherjee (eds.) Understanding Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  6. Advance Market Commitments: A Policy to Stimulate Investment in Vaccines for Neglected Diseases,” with Owen Barder and Heidi Williams, The Economists’ Voice, 3:3 (2006). 
  7. “A Purchase Commitment for Vaccines,” a contribution to “Beyond Communicable Disease Control: Health in the Age of Globalization,” by Dyna Arhin-Tenkorang and Pedro Conceição, in Inge Kaul, Pedro Conceição, Katell Le Goulven, and Ronald U. Mendoza (eds.) Providing Global Public Goods: Managing Globalization. Oxford University Press, 2003.
  8. “A Purchase Commitment for Vaccines,” in Inge Kaul, Katell Le Goulven, and Mirjam Schnupf (eds.) Global Public Goods Financing: New Tools for New Challenges, A Policy Dialogue, United Nations Development Programme, Office of Development Studies, 2002.
  9. Creating Markets for New Vaccines: Part I: Rationale,” in Adam B. Jaffe, Josh Lerner, and Scott Stern (eds.) Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 1. MIT Press. 2001.
  10. Creating Markets for New Vaccines: Part II: Design Issues,” in Adam B. Jaffe, Josh Lerner, and Scott Stern (eds.) Innovation Policy and the Economy, Volume 1, MIT Press. 2001.
  11. “A Commitment for Vaccines,” with Jessica Leino, translated into French as “Un engagement pour les vaccins,” Biofutu, 217 (December 2001).

Working Papers

  1. Designing Advance Market Commitments for New Vaccines,” with Jonathan Levin and Christopher M. Snyder.  NBER Working Paper w28168 (2020).
  2. Why Are Drugs More Profitable Than Vaccines?” with Christopher M. Snyder, NBER Working Paper 9833, 2003.
  3. “Ways to Spur Malaria Vaccine Research,” with Rachel Glennerster. 

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. Market design to accelerate COVID-19 vaccine supply,” with Juan Camilo Castillo, Amrita Ahuja, Susan Athey, Arthur Baker, Eric Budish, Tasneem Chipty, Rachel Glennerster, Scott Duke Kominers, Greg Larson, Jean Lee, Canice Prendergast, Christopher M. Snyder, Alex Tabarrok, Brandon Joel Tan, and Witold Więcek. Science (371), (March 12, 2021): 1107-1109.
  2. Bigger Is Better When It Comes to Vaccine Production,” Eric Budish and Christopher Snyder. (17 March 2021). Wall Street Journal. 
  3. Making Markets For Vaccines, Ideas To Action with Ruth Levine and Alice Albright. The Report of the Center for Global Development Working Group Advance Market Commitment Working Group. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development, 2005.
  4. “Making Vaccines Pay: Saving Lives With Markets,” The Milken Institute Review, (First Quarter, 2004): 42-53.
  5. Creating a Market for Vaccines,” with Rachel Glennerster, New York Times, June 1, 2001.
  6. Creating Markets for New Vaccines,” in Christopher D. Gerrard, Marco Ferroni, and Ashoka Mody (eds.) Global Public Policies and Programs: Implications for Financing and Evaluation Proceedings from a World Bank Workshop, 2001. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
  7. A Tax Credit for Sales of HIV, Malaria, and Tuberculosis Vaccines,” with Amir Attaran, Jeffrey Sachs, and Sara Sievers, 2000.
  8. A World Bank Vaccine Commitment,” with Rachel Glennerster, Brookings Institution Policy Brief 57, May 2000. 

Experimental Methods

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Experimentation, Innovation, and Economics,” American Economic Review, 110:7 (July 2020): 1974-1994. Revised version of 2019 Nobel Lecture. 
  2. Using Randomized Controlled Trials to Estimate Long-Run Impacts in Development Economics,” with Adrien Bouguen, Yue Huang, and Edward Miguel, Annual Review of Economics, 11 (2019): 523-561. (NBER Working Paper 25356, 2018). 
  3. Using Randomization in Development Economics Research: A Toolkit,” with Esther Duflo and Rachel Glennerster, in T. Schultz and John Strauss (eds.) Handbook of Development Economics, Volume 4. Amsterdam and New York: North-Holland, 2008. (CEPR Discussion Paper 6059, 2006; NBER Working Paper 333, 2006). 
  4. Use of Randomization in the Evaluation of Development,” with Esther Duflo, in William Easterly (ed.) Reinventing Foreign Aid. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2008. 
  5. Use of Randomization in the Evaluation of Development Effectiveness,” with Esther Duflo, in George Keith Pitman, Osvaldo N. Feinstein, and Gregory K. Ingram, (eds.) Evaluating Development Effectiveness, Vol. 7 of World Bank Series on Evaluation and Development. New Brunswick, New Jersey, and London, U.K.: Transaction Publishers, 2005.

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. Randomized Evaluations of Interventions in Social Service Delivery,” with Esther Duflo and Rachel Glennerster, Development Outreach, 6:1 (March 2004).

Economics of Innovation

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Preventives versus Treatments Redux: Tighter Bounds on Distortions in Innovation Incentives with an Application to the Global Demand for HIV Pharmaceuticals,” with Christopher M. Snyder, Review of Industrial Organization, 53:1 (August 2018): 235-273. DOI: 10.1007/s11151-018-9621-9624. 
  2. Creating Incentives For Private Sector Involvement In Poverty Reduction: Purchase Commitments For Agricultural Innovation,” with Alix Peterson Zwane in Inge Kaul and Pedro Conceição, eds., The New Public Finance Responding To Global Challenges, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
  3. Incentives for Research on Neglected Diseases,” with Rachel Glennerster, Letter to the Editor, The Lancet (365), (February 26, 2005): 753-754.
  4. Encouraging Private Sector Research for Tropical Agriculture,” with Alix Peterson Zwane, World Development, 33:1 (January 2005): 87-105. 
  5. Pharmaceuticals and the Developing World,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16:4, (Fall 2002): 67-90.
  6. Patent Buyouts: A Mechanism for Encouraging Innovation,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113:4 (November 1998): 1137-1167. (NBER Working Paper 6304, 1997). Reprinted in Alexander Tabarrok (ed.) Entrepreneurial Economics: Bright Ideas from the Dismal Science. Oxford University Press, 2002.

Working Papers

  1. Is Development a Good Investment? Which Innovations Scale? Evidence on social investing from USAID’s Development Innovation Ventures,” with Sasha Gallant, Olga Rostapshova, and Milan Thomas. Working Paper, July 2020. 
  2. Worst-Case Bounds on R&D and Pricing Distortions: Theory and Disturbing Conclusions if Consumer Values Follow the World Income Distribution” with Christopher M. Snyder. Working Paper. September 2018. NBER Working Paper 25119, 2018.

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. In Defense of a Good Reputation,” in Michael Kinsley (ed.) in Creative Capitalism : A Conversation with Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, and other Economic Leaders. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008.
  2. You Can Make Profits and Save the Poor,” in Michael Kinsley (ed.) in Creative Capitalism : A Conversation with Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, and other Economic Leaders. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008.
  3. Promoting Innovation to Solve Global Challenges: Opportunities for R&D in Agriculture, Climate Change, and Health,” with Heidi Williams. German Marshall Fund, October 2 2008.
  4. Stimulating Industrial R&D for Neglected Infectious Diseases: Economic Perspectives,” with David Webber, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 79:8 (2001): 693-801.

Other

Academic Articles and Book Chapters

  1. Behavioral Development Economics,” with Gautam Rao and Frank Schilbach in Douglas Bernheim, Stefano DellaVigna, and David Laibson (eds.) Handbook of Behavioral Economics: Foundations and Applications 2, Volume 2. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 2019. 
  2. There is No Place Like Home: Theory and Evidence on Decentralization and Politician Preferences,” with Vivian Hoffmann, Pamela Jakiela, and Ryan Sheely. MIT Economics. (March 2017).
  3. Success in Entrepreneurship: Doing the Math,” with Jonathan Robinson and Olga Rostapshova in Sebastian Edwards, Simon Johnson, and David N. Weil (eds.) African Successes, Volume II, Human Capital, Chapter 9. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016. 
  4. Guns, Latrines and Land Reform: Private Expectations and Public Policy,” with Jack Willis, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 106:5 (May 2016): 83-88. DOI: 10.1257/aer.p20161096. (NBER Working Paper 21915, 2016). 
  5. The New Role of the World Bank,” with Michael Clemens, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30:1 (Winter 2016): 53-76. (Center for Global Development Working Paper 421)
  6. Self-Control at Work,” with Supreet Kaur and Sendhil Mullainathan, Journal of Political Economy, 123:6 (December 2015): 1227-1277. 
  7. Behavioral Biases and Firm Behavior: Evidence from Kenyan Retail Shops,” with Jean Lee, Jonathan Robinson, and Olga Rostapshova, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 103:3 (May 2013): 362-368. 
  8. The Economics of International Refugee Law,” with Ryan Bubb and David Levine, Journal of Legal Studies, 40:2 (June 2011): 367-404. 
  9. The Risk of Asking: Being Surveyed Can Affect Later Behavior,” with Alix Peterson Zwane, Jonathan Zinman, Eric Van Dusen, William Pariente, Clair Null, Edward Miguel, Michael Kremer, Dean Karlan, Richard Hornbeck, Xavier Ginéj, Esther Duflo, Florencia Devoto, Bruno Crepon, and Abhijit Banerjee, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108:5 (February 1, 2011): 1821-1826.
  10. Self-Control and the Development of Work Arrangements,” with Supreet Kaur and Sendhil Mullainathan, American Economic Review, 100:2 (May 2010): 624-628. 
  11. Estimating the Impact of the Hajj: Religion and Tolerance in Islam’s Global Gathering,” with David Clingingsmith and Asim Ijaz Khwaja, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124:3 (August 2009): 1133-1170. (John F. Kennedy School of Government, Working Paper Series, 2008 and Weatherhead Center for International Development Working Paper Series 159). 
  12. A Biological Model of Unions,” with Ben Olken, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 1:2 (April 2009): 150-175. (NBER Working Paper 8257, 2001). 
  13. Incentives in Markets, Firms, and Governments,” with Daron Acemoglu and Atif Mian, Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 24:2 (October 2008): 273-306. (NBER Working Paper 9802, 2000). 
  14. Outside Funding and the Dynamics of Participation in Community Associations,” with Mary Kay Gugerty, American Journal of Political Science, 52:3 (July 2008): 585-602. (“Outside Funding of Community Organizations: Benefiting or Displacing the Poor?” with Mary Kay Gugerty, NBER Working Paper 7896, 2000). 
  15. Peer Effects and Alcohol Use among College Students,” with Dan Levy, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22:3 (Summer 2008): 189-206. (NBER Working Paper 9876, 2003). 
  16. “Globalisation and Inequality within Countries,” Poverty in Focus: The Challenge of Inequality, Brasilia: International Poverty Center, (June 2007): 10-11.
  17. The Illusion of Sustainability,” with Edward Miguel, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122:3 (August 2007): 1007-1065. Reprinted in William Easterly (ed.) Reinventing Foreign Aid. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2008. (NBER Working Paper 10324, 2004). 
  18. Globalization of Labor Markets and Inequality,” in Susan M. Collins and Carol Graham (eds.) Global Labor Markets, Brookings Trade Forum, 2006, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2006. 
  19. “Odious Debt,” with Seema Jayachandran, in Ashoka Mody and Catherine Patillo (eds.) Macroeconomic Policies and Poverty Reduction. New York: Routledge, 2006. 
  20. Empathy or Antipathy? The Consequences of Racially and Socially Diverse Peers on Attitudes and Behaviors,” with Greg Duncan, Johanne Boisjoly, Dan Levy, and Jacque Eccles, American Economic Review, 96:5 (December 2006): 1890-1906. 
  21. The Missing Mandate: Global Public Goods,” in Nancy Birdsall (ed.) Rescuing the World Bank: A CGD Working Group Report and Selected Essays. Washington DC: Center for Global Development, 2006. 
  22. Asian Growth and African Development,” with Marcos de Carvalho Chamon, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 96:2 (May 2006): 400-404.
  23. Peer Effects in Drug Use and Sex Among College Students,” with Greg J. Duncan, Johanne Boisjoly, Dan M. Levy, and Jacque Eccles, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33:3 (June 2005): 375–385. 
  24. The Price of Life,” with Rachel Glennerster and Heidi Williams, Foreign Policy, (May/June 2005): 26-27.
  25. ‘Measuring Poverty’: Discussion,” The Review of Economics & Statistics, 87:1 (February 1, 2005): 23-25. 
  26. Comment on Jeffrey Sachs’ ‘Ending Africa’s Poverty,’” in William C. Brainard and George L. Perry (eds.) Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2004:1: 217-231. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2004. 
  27. Comments on ‘Assessing the Impact of Globalization on Poverty and Inequality: A New Lens on an Old Puzzle’ (Carol Graham) and on ‘Poverty and the Organization of Political Violence: A Review and Some Conjectures’ (Nicholas Sambanis)” in Susan M. Collins and Carol Graham (eds.) Brookings Trade Forum 2004: Globalization, Poverty and Inequality. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004. 
  28. Statist Quo Bias: Rejoinder to De Alessi,” Econ Journal Watch, 1:2 (August 2004): 277-278. http://www.econjournalwatch.org
  29. An Ivory-Tower Take on the Ivory Trade: Response to De Alessi,” Econ Journal Watch, 1:1 (April 2004): 55-57. http://www.econjournalwatch.org
  30. Elephants: Reply,” with Charles Morcom, American Economic Review, 93:4 (September 2003): 1446-1448.
  31. Income Distribution Dynamics with Endogenous Fertility,” with Daniel Chen, Journal of Economic Growth, 7:3 (September 2002):227-258. (NBER Working Paper 7530, 2000).
  32. The Impact of Development Assistance on Social Capital: Evidence from Kenya,” with Mary Kay Gugerty, in Christian Grootaert and Thierry van Bastelaer (eds.) The Role of Social Capital in Development: An Empirical Assessment. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, April 2002.
  33. Does Favorable Tax-Treatment of Housing Reduce Equipment Investment?” with Ben Broadbent, Journal of Public Economics, 81:3 (September 2001): 369-391. (NBER Working Paper 6161, 1997).
  34. Searching for Prosperity,” with Alexei Onatski and James Stock, Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, 55 (2001): 275-303. 
  35. Elephants,” with Charles Morcom, American Economic Review, 90:1 (March 2000): 212-234. (NBER Working Paper 5674, 1996).
  36. Income Distribution Dynamics with Endogenous Fertility,” with Daniel Chen, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 89:2 (May 1999): 155-160. (NBER Working Paper 7530, 2000).
  37. Disorganization,” with Olivier Blanchard, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112:4 (November 1997): 1091-1126.)
  38. How Much Does Sorting Increase Inequality?” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112:1 (February 1997): 115-139. (NBER Working Paper 5566, 1996

Working Papers

  1. Borrowing Requirements, Credit Access, and Adverse Selection: Evidence from Kenya,” with William Jack, Joost de Laat, and Tavneet Suri. CEPR Discussion Paper 11523; NBER Working Paper 22686, 2016.
  2. Protecting Antiquities: A Role for Long-Term Leases?” with Tom Wilkening. Working Paper, Harvard University, August 2015.
  3. Antiquities: Long-Term Leases as an Alternative to Export Bans,” with Tom Wilkening Weatherhead Center for International Affairs Working Papers, Harvard University, 2007.
  4. “Peter Singer vs. Charles Dickens: Evaluating Particularist Ethics from a Universalist Standpoint,” with Daniel Wood, 2007.
  5. The Globalization of Household Production,” with Stanley Watt, 2007.
  6. Globalization and Inequality,” with Eric Maskin, 2003.
  7. Decentralization: A Cautionary Tale,” with Sylvie Moulin and Robert Namunyu, 2003.
  8. Should Taxes be Independent of Age?” under revision for Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2001.
  9. Globalization and International Public Finance,” with Paras Mehta, NBER Working Paper 7575, 2000.
  10. Why Are Worker Cooperatives So Rare?” NBER Working Paper 6118, 1997.
  11. Wage Inequality and Segregation by Skill,” with Eric Maskin, under revision for Quarterly Journal of Economics. (NBER Working Paper 5718, 1996; Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Institute of Economic Research, Harvard University, 1996, Discussion Paper 1799)

Reports, Popular Publications, Conference Papers and Comments

  1. Mecca and Moderation,” with Asim Ijaz Khwaha and David Clingingsmith. International Herald Tribune, May 20, 2008.
  2. Odious Debt,” with Seema Jayachandran, American Economic Review, 96:1 (March 2006):82-92 (NBER Working Paper 8953, 2002). Reprinted in Paul Collier and Jan Willlem Gunning (eds.) Globalization and Poverty. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2008. 
  3. “Loan Sanctions,” with Seema Jayachandran. The Washington Post. February 7, 2007.
  4. Impact Evaluation for Slum Upgrading Interventions,” with Erica Field. Doing Impact Evaluation Series No. 3 Thematic Group on Poverty Analysis, Monitoring and Impact Evaluation, The World Bank. Washington D.C., 2006. 
  5. Odious Debt,” with Seema Jayachandran, in Jochnick and Preston (eds.) Sovereign Debt at the Crossroads. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 
  6. “A Dictator’s Crippling Debt,” with Seema Jayachandran, Harvard Magazine, July 2003.
  7. “Make Odious Debt Too Risky to Issue,” with Seema Jayachandran, Financial Times, May 8, 2003.
  8. Odious Debt: When Dictators Borrow, Who Repays the Loans?” with Seema Jayachandran, Brookings Review, 21:2 (Spring 2003).
  9. “A World of Junk-Status States,” with Seema Jayachandran, The Guardian (London), August 19, 2002. 
  10. “Odious Debt,” with Seema Jayachandran, Brookings Institution Policy Brief, 103 (July 2002). 
  11. Odious Debt,” with Seema Jayachandran, Finance and Development (IMF), 39:2 (June 2002).
  12. A Cure for Indifference,” with Jeffrey Sachs, Financial Times, May 5, 1999.
  13. Restructuring Social Security Taxes,” Brookings Institution Policy Brief 40, December 1998.